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Choose Your Business Structure: Partnership

From the Small Business Administration

A partnership is a single business where two or more people share ownership.

Each partner contributes to all aspects of the business, including money, property, labor or skill. In return, each partner shares in the profits and losses of the business.

Because partnerships entail more than one person in the decision-making process, it’s important to discuss a wide variety of issues up front and develop a legal partnership agreement. This agreement should document how future business decisions will be made, including how the partners will divide profits, resolve disputes, change ownership (bring in new partners or buy out current partners) and how to dissolve the partnership. Although partnership agreements are not legally required, they are strongly recommended and it is considered extremely risky to operate without one.

TYPES OF PARTNERSHIPS

There are three general types of partnership arrangements:

FORMING A PARTNERSHIP

To form a partnership, you must register your business with your state, a process generally done through your Secretary of State’s office.

You’ll also need to establish your business name. For partnerships, your legal name is the name given in your partnership agreement or the last names of the partners. If you choose to operate under a name different than the officially registered name, you will most likely have to file a fictitious name (also known as an assumed name, trade name, or DBA name, short for “doing business as”).

Once your business is registered, you must obtain business licenses and permits. Regulations vary by industry, state and locality. Use the SBA’s Licensing & Permits tool to find a listing of federal, state and local permits, licenses and registrations you’ll need to run a business.

If you are hiring employees, read more about federal and state regulations for employers.

PARTNERSHIP TAXES

Most businesses will need to register with the IRS, register with state and local revenue agencies, and obtain a tax ID number or permit.

A partnership must file an “annual information return” to report the income, deductions, gains and losses from the business’s operations, but the business itself does not pay income tax. Instead, the business “passes through” any profits or losses to its partners. Partners include their respective share of the partnership’s income or loss on their personal tax returns.

Partnership taxes generally include:

FILING INFORMATION FOR PARTNERSHIPS
ADVANTAGES OF A PARTNERSHIP
DISADVANTAGES OF A PARTNERSHIP